KAWAURA Akihiko
Faculty of Policy Studies Department of Policy Studies
Professor
Last Updated :2024/04/24

Researcher Profile and Settings

Research Interests

  • 公共選択論
  • Public Choice

Research Areas

  • Humanities & social sciences / Economic policy

Education

  • University of Hawaii at Manoa, Graduate School of Economics, 1985/09 - 1989/06
  • University of Sussex, Graduate School of Arts and Social Sciences, 1982/10 - 1983/07
  • Nagoya University, Department of Economics, 経済学科, 1978/04 - 1982/03

Degree

  • Ph.D., University of Hawaii
  • M.A., University of Sussex

Association Memberships

  • 日本経済学会
  • Western Economic Association International
  • American Economic Association

Published Papers

  • Deeds, not words? Speech and re-election of Japan’s local legislators
    Akihiko Kawaura; Yasutomo Kimura; Yuzu Uchida
    Constitutional Political Economy, Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 35(1) 123 - 140, Mar. 2024, Scientific journal
  • 社会科学分野の学術研究における地方議会議事録データの活用
    川浦 昭彦
    知能と情報, 31(2) 34 - 38, Apr. 2019
  • Tourism development of Hua Hin: A beach resort with a royal brand
    Akihiko Kawaura; Suphat Saquandeekul
    Doshisha Policy and Management Review, 19(2) 25 - 31, 2018
  • Generals in defense of allocation: Coups and military budgets in Thailand
    Akihiko Kawaura
    JOURNAL OF ASIAN ECONOMICS, 58(C) 72 - 78, 2018, Scientific journal
  • Integration of North and South American players in Japan's professional baseball leagues
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix
    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC REVIEW, WILEY-BLACKWELL, 57(3) 1107 - 1130, Aug. 2016, Scientific journal
  • A tale of two duopolies: Collusion and exit in a local airline industry
    Akihiko Kawaura
    APPLIED ECONOMICS LETTERS, ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 22(8) 664 - 667, May 2015, Scientific journal
  • Opposition to Annexation of Hawaii into the United States in the 19th Century : An Early Sign of Anti-Globalism
    Kawaura Akihiko
    同志社政策科学研究, Alternative:The Policy and Management Association of Doshisha University, 17(1) 85 - 92, 2015
  • Repeal of silver purchase act by president Cleveland : a note on policy options, calculus of consent, and political leadership
    Kawaura Akihiko
    Doshisha University policy & management, Doshisha University, 16(1) 61 - 69, 2014
  • Mayor term as a determinant of municiplity budget
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha Policy and Management Review, Doshisha University, 14(1) 33 - 37, 2012
  • Legislator incentives in a fragile democracy: Evidence from budget allocation in Thailand
    Akihiko Kawaura
    CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIC POLICY, WILEY-BLACKWELL, 29(3) 407 - 415, Jul. 2011, Scientific journal
  • Local government consolidations in Hokkaido: Elected officials as an obstacle
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha Policy and Management Review, Doshisha University, 12(2) 1 - 7, Mar. 2011, Scientific journal
  • Designated hitter rule debate: A search for Mr. Hyde in pitchers
    Akihiko Kawaura
    JOURNAL OF SPORTS ECONOMICS, SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 11(3) 349 - 357, Jun. 2010, Scientific journal
  • Random allocation in the local commons management
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha Policy Management Review, Doshisha University, 10(1) 1 - 4, Jul. 2008, Scientific journal
  • The designated hitter rule and team defensive strategy in Japan's professional baseball leagues
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix
    JOURNAL OF SPORTS ECONOMICS, SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 8(5) 491 - 504, Oct. 2007, Scientific journal
  • Regional economies and keiretsu groups in Japan
    Akihiko Kawaura; T. Itakura; S. Harada; S. Miyazaki
    Doshisha Policy and Management Review, Doshisha University, 8(1) 1 - 10, Jul. 2006, Scientific journal
  • Problems of the first-to-invent priority rule of the U.S. patent system
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha Policy and Management Review, Doshisha University, 7(1) 27 - 35, 2005
  • Deregulation and governance: Plight of Japanese banks in the 1990s
    Akihiko Kawaura
    APPLIED ECONOMICS, ROUTLEDGE TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 36(5) 479 - 484, Mar. 2004, Scientific journal
  • Public resource allocation and electoral systems in the US and Japan
    Akihiko Kawaura
    PUBLIC CHOICE, KLUWER ACADEMIC PUBL, 115(1-2) 63 - 81, Apr. 2003, Scientific journal
  • Rule changes and competitive balance in Japanese professional baseball
    Sumner La Croix; Akihiko Kawaura
    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, WILEY, 37(2) 353 - 368, Apr. 1999, Scientific journal
  • Product patent reform and its impact on Korea's pharmaceutical industry
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix
    INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIC JOURNAL, 10(1) 109 - 124, 1996
  • Japan's shift from process to product patents in the pharmaceutical industry: An event study of the impact on Japanese firms
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner La Croix
    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, WESTERN ECONOMIC ASSOC INT, 33(1) 88 - 103, Jan. 1995, Scientific journal

MISC

  • Legislative Participation and Re-Election of Otaru City Assembly Members
    Akihiko Kawaura; Yasutomo Kimura
    同志社大学創造経済研究センター・ディスカッションペーパー#2022-01, 2022
  • Is Silence Golden? Evidence from Re-Election of Japan’s Prefectural Assembly Members
    Akihiko Kawaura; Yasutomo Kimura; Yuzu Uchida
    Doshisha University Center for Creative Economy Discussion Paper #2019-01, Mar. 2020
  • Elected officials in the local assembly: Analysis of prefectural plenary session transcripts
    Akihiko Kawaura; Y. Kimura; K. Takamaru; Y. Uchida
    Doshisha University Center for the Study of the Creative Economy Discussion Paper Series 2018-2, 2018
  • Generals in defense of allocation: Coups and military budget in Thailand
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha University Center for the Study of the Creative Economy Discussion Paper Series 2017-01, 2017
  • Corporate failure, supply shock and government bailout: A case study of Aloha Airlines
    Akihiko Kawaura
    University of Hawaii Department of Economics Working Paper 11-3, 2011
  • Integration of North and South American players in Japan's professional baseball leagues
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner J. La Croix
    University of Hawaii Department of Economics Working Paper 11-14, 2011
  • The designated hitter rule in baseball as a natural experiment
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner J. La Croix
    University of Hawaii Department of Economics Working Paper 10-5, 2010
  • Self-serving mayors and local government consolidations in Japan
    Akihiko Kawaura
    University of Hawaii Department of Economics Working Paper 10-14, 2010
  • Public choice in a fledgling democracy: budget allocation in Thailand
    川浦 昭彦
    The business review of Aichi Gakuin University, 愛知学院大学商学会, 49(2) 43729 - 157, 2009
  • 予算ニュートラルな議席配分の実現:「一票の格差」の解消がもたらすもの
    川浦 昭彦
    学士会会報, 学士会, 2008(2) 77 - 83, 2008
  • Outsourcing of inventive activities in the Japanese manufacturing sector: Analysis of firm-level data
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Doshisha University ITEC Working Paper #07-19, 2007
  • Globalisation and local banking institutions: The case of Thailand
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Power, Purpose, Process, and Practice in Asia: The Work of the 2003/2004 API Fellows, Tokyo: Nippon Foundation, 68 - 73, 2006
  • Legislative representation and budget allocation in Thailand
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Chulalongkorn Economics Research Center Discussion Paper Series #2004-01, 2004
  • (Book Review) Globalization of Japan: Japanese Sakoku Mentality and U.S. Efforts to Open Japan, by Mayumi Ito
    Akihiko Kawaura
    ASEAN Economic Bulletin, 18(2) 239 - 240, 2001
  • Monetary policy in Bhutan: Implications of Indian rupee circulation
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Otaru University of Commerce Center for Business Creation Discussion Paper Series #77, The Japan Society of International Economics, 2001(52) 103 - 104, 2001
  • Pre-war policy-based lending in Japan
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Yucho Shikin Kenkyu, 5 73 - 86, 1998
  • 第二次世界大戦以前の日本における政策金融
    川浦 昭彦
    郵貯資金研究, 5 73 - 86, 1998
  • Protection of intellectual property rights: Analytical framework of negotiations between industrial and developing countries
    Akihiko Kawaura
    Otaru University of Commerce APEC Study Center Discussion Paper Series #1443, The Japan Society of International Economics, 1997(48) 129 - 130, 1997
  • Policy-based finance and financial sector development in Japan
    Akihiko Kawaura; D. Vittas
    World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series #1443, 1995
  • Bhutan: Country Economic Memorandum
    Akihiko Kawaura; A. Ching
    World Bank Report 13490-BHU, 1994
  • Property right regimes in Japanese baseball: A new look at the Rottenberg Invariance Proposition
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner J. La Croix
    University of Hawaii Department of Economics Working Paper, No 1993-15, 1993
  • Economic and Social Survey of Asia and the Pacific
    Akihiko Kawaura
    United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UN-ESCAP), 1990
  • R&D Rivalry and the Transition from Process to Product Patents: A Case Study of the Japanese Pharmaceutical Industry
    Akihiko Kawaura
    UMI ProQuest Digital Dissertations #9006146, 1989

Books etc

  • What affects women’s happiness in India?
    Kanako Takimoto; Akihiko Kawaura
    Kazuo Mino and Tadashi Yagi (Eds.), The Cultural Basis of Economic Growth in India, Springer Nature., 2023, Joint work, 133-149
  • Incomplete contracting, league governance, and the role of the commissioner in Japanese and North American professional baseball
    Akihiko Kawaura; Sumner J. La Croix
    John Wilson and Richard Pomfret (Eds.), Historical Perspectives on Sports Economics; Lessons from the Field, Edward Elgar, 2019, Joint work, 91-108
  • Corporate failure, supply shock and government bailout: A case study of Aloha Airlines, 同志社大学大学院総合政策科学研究科(編)『総合政策科学の現在』
    川浦 昭彦; 足立光生; Ofer Reldman; 藤本哲史
    晃洋書房, 2016, Single work, 149-162, Scholarly book
  • 基礎から学ぶ財政学
    川浦 昭彦; 伊多波良雄; 原田禎夫
    晃洋書房, 2016, Joint work, Scholarly book
  • The very short tenure of foreign players in Japanese professional baseball, 1951-2004
    KAWAURA Akihiko; Sumner J. La Croix
    Richard Pomfret and John Wilson (Eds.), Sports Through the Lens of Economic History, Edward Elgar, 2016, Joint work, 30-54, Scholarly book
  • 「公正な選挙は民主的で安定した社会を保証できるか - タイ・トルコを例に」同志社大学政策学部10周年記念出版編集委員会(編)『政策学ブックレット①民主主義再生のためにすべきこと』
    川浦 昭彦
    学芸出版社, 2014, Single work, 22-31, Scholarly book
  • R&D management in Japanese manufacturing firms: Technology trade, R&D outsourcing and joint R&D
    KAWAURA Akihiko; D. Miyamoto
    Y. Nakata and H. Miyoshi (Eds.), Have Japanese Firms Changed? Basingstoke, Hampshire: Palgrave Mcmillan, 2010, Joint work, 137-160, Scholarly book
  • Institutional change in Japan: Theories, evidence, and reflections
    KAWAURA Akihiko; Sumner J. La Croix
    M. Blomstrom and S.J. La Croix (Eds.), Institutional Change in Japan, London: Routledge, 2006, Joint work, 15-44, Scholarly book
  • 「第6章 総合政策科学と経済学」同志社大学大学院・総合政策科学研究科編『総合政策科学入門(第2版)』
    川浦 昭彦
    成文堂, 2005, Joint work, 123-144
  • Baseball in Japan and the United States: Same games, same rules, same results?
    KAWAURA Akihiko; Sumner J. La Croix
    R. Fort and J. Fizel (Eds.), International Sports Economics Comparisons, Westport, CT: Praegers Publishers, 2004, Joint work, 265-279, Scholarly book
  • Why do the Japanese get so many pills when they visit the doctor?
    KAWAURA Akihiko; Sumner J La Croix
    J. Mak et al (Eds.), Japan: Why It Works, Why It Doesn't, Honolulu:University of Hawaii Press, 1997, Joint work, 131-136, Scholarly book

Research Projects

  • 地方議会における非構造化データと構造化データの有機的な連結に関する研究
    木村 泰知; 川浦 昭彦; 乙武 北斗; 佐々木 稔; 高丸 圭一; 小川 泰弘; 内田 ゆず
    本年度は、議論構造の分析、および、関連文書の自動アライメントについての研究を進めた。研究代表者、および、研究分担者は、地方議会会議録、議会だより、予算表などのデータを用いた Shared Task ( QA Lab-PoliInfo-3 ) を開催した。QA Lab-PoliInfo-3には、大学や民間企業などから13チームの参加があった。 この Shared Task に関する研究発表を研究会で行うとともに、結果をまとめて国際会議へ投稿した。データセットについては、GitHub ( https://github.com/poliinfo3 ) 上で公開する予定である。また、政治学、経済学、社会言語学における研究に向けて、地方議会会議録のデータの収集および整理を進めている。, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 2021/04 -2025/03, 基盤研究(B), 小樽商科大学
  • An Inquiry into the Municipal Government Decision-Making: Evidence from Local Assembly Transcripts
    川浦 昭彦; 木村 泰知
    地方政府の意思決定過程を研究テーマとして、地方議会での議員の行動の影響を分析した。公共選択の理論から導き出される仮説を実際のデータで検証することが目的であるため、議員の行動を表す変数を数値化することが必要である。そのため、議員の立法過程への参加の指標として、議会議事録に記録される各議員の発言文字数データを算出した(この過程では機械学習の機能を備えたプログラムを活用した)。この発言文字数データを当選回数・年齢・所属会派・議長職務の有無などの各議員の属性データと組み合わせ、議員が再選を目指した場合の次期選挙での得票率に影響を与えるか否かを検証した。 データは北海道小樽市の市議会について収集した。当該市議会は2000年以降のすべての本会議議事録を公表しているため、過去20年間の議事録データを収集することができた。この期間の統一地方選挙に合わせて行われた5回の市議会選挙での得票率を被説明変数として、その決定要因についてのパネルデータ回帰分析を行った。「バランスしていない(unbalanced)」パネルであるため、変動効果モデルにより推計を行った。 分析結果は以下の通りまとめられる。先ず、議員の立法過程への参加を反映する発言文字数の変数は、次期選挙での得票率に統計的に有意かつプラスの影響を与えることが確認された。つまり、議員にとっては議会審議に参加することは再選にとって有利であるとの仮説は支持された。また、この効果は4年間の議員任期全体で分析した場合よりも、任期後半について分析した場合に影響がより強くなる。これが示唆することは、選挙に近い時期に議会審議に参加することの重要性である。, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2020/04 -2023/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Doshisha University
  • An Inquiry into the Municipal Government Decision-Making: Evidence from Local Assembly Transcripts
    Kawaura Akihiko
    The methodological innovation of this research is the use of local assembly transcripts from all prefectures in the 2011-2014 period. The volume of speech by governors and assembly members in the deliberations is derived from individual assemblies’ transcript data files through the natural language processing. The research produced two papers. One investigates the consequences of long tenure of elected officials and suggests that multi-term governors tend to record more character counts (i.e., engage in more speaking) by themselves as well as relative to legislators in the assembly. The other paper is an inquiry into the re-election of Japan’s prefectural assembly members and investigates whethe members' visibility in the plenary session deliberations is a determinant of their re-election. The empirical analysis of the re-election outcomes of incumbent legislators suggests that speech volume is a factor contributing to electoral success for assembly members with multiple terms., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2017/04 -2020/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Doshisha University
  • Construction of A Local Political Corpus that Links the Background, Process, and Results of Discussions and Its Interdisciplinary Application
    Kimura Yasutomo
    In this research, a corpus that correlates "background of discussion", "process of discussion" and "result of discussion" is constructed with the aim of activating and interdisciplinary research on local politics. Specifically, we aim to link three language resources, newspaper articles (background of discussions), minutes of local assembly (process of discussions), and ordinances (results of discussions) from the viewpoint of region, time, and issues. The purpose of this research is the following three points. A) Collection and organization of three language resources (local assembly minutes, ordinances, newspaper articles) B) Build a corpus that links three language resources from the perspective of region, time, and issues C) Applied research in politics, economics, linguistics, and information engineering using the above results, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2016/04 -2020/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Otaru University of Commerce
  • Cultura;l Basis of Economic Growth: International Comparizon
    Mino Kazuo; SAKOTA Sayaka; TAKITA Kayoko
    The purpose of this research project is to elucidate the role of cultural foundation of a society in the process of long-term economic growth. Our study focuses on the Indian economy whose growth pattern has been different from those of other Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea and China. Since the project members have different research fields, we could investigate our main topic from a wide range of perspectives. In our study, we employed not only the standerd economic theory and statistical methods but also large scale questionnaire surveys as well as several field works in India. Thanks to such an interdisciplinary approach, we obtain some important research outcomes that have not been clarified by the foregoing studies on Indian economic growth., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2016/07 -2019/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
  • Public choice analysis of collective decision-making in East and South-East Asian democracies
    Kawaura Akihiko; SUKSRI Piyawan; TSENG Lynn-Yen; PANELO Carlo
    The purpose of this research project was to expand the research coverage in the public choice field from industrially advanced countries to new democracies by using data from East and South-East Asian democracies. Analyses of Thailand’s budget data from 1948-2014 reveal that military coups have resulted in larger defense budget in the year immediately following the coup. Among the branches of the armed forces, the army gained in their allocation out of the total defense budget after coups. These results imply that coup leaders have made use of their acquired executive power to direct greater budget for the benefits of their organizations. Other themes in the project, still in progress, include (1) the change in the government size prompted by the adoption of democracy in Taiwan, and (2) the relationship between legislative representative and regional budget allocation in the Philippines., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2014/04 -2017/03, Grant-in-Aid for Challenging Exploratory Research, Doshisha University
  • An inquiry into the opportunistic behavior by decision makers : Heisei Municipality Amalgamation in Japan
    KAWAURA Akihiko
    This research revisits the issue of elected officials’terms by examining how the cumulative tenure of municipality mayors affects budget size and local government consolidations. Multi-term incumbents enjoy greater rent-seeking potential from government expenditure through learning-by-doing. Their effort levels in budget formulation rise with the length of service and thereby budget size tends to grow with cumulative mayoral terms. They are also more likely to pursue mergers in which their localities are the dominant entities. We test these hypotheses using data on municipalities in Japan and find that long-serving mayors expand public activities and engage in consolidations with smaller partners., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2011 -2013, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Doshisha University
  • Public Resources Allocation and Regional Representation in the Legislature : A Case Study of Thailand's Budget
    KAWAURA Akihiko
    Past studies have identified that the incentives of politicians to serve their home constituencies is a determinant of budget allocation in mature representative democracies. This research is an attempt to extend the analysis to a fledgling democracy by investigating the relationship between legislative representation and geographical allocation of budget among Thailand's 76 provinces with data from the 2000-2005 fiscal years. Panel data analyses demonstrate that the presence of ruling party members in the province delegates in the House of Representatives has implications on the distribution of government expenditure. The provinces that are represented by ruling party members tend to receive a greater amount of fiscal outlays relative to their revenue contribution, and this association is observed for capital expenditure regardless of political parties controlling the executive branch of the government. This result suggests that public choice theory holds in young democracies as well, and that democratic institutions could have economic performance consequences through public resource allocation in developing economies., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2006 -2007, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Doshisha University
  • Legislative representation and budget allocation
    2003 -2005, Competitive research funding
  • 立法府代表と予算配分の関係
    2003 -2005, Competitive research funding
  • Market Economy and Environmental Policy in the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC)
    KASHIOKA Tomihide; SHRESTHA Manoj l.; KITAGAWA Katsuhiko; IIDA Tsuneo; HIGASHIMOTO Haruo; KAWAURA Akihiko; YODA Hiroshi; YABUNO Yuzo
    The monetary crisis that erupted in Thailand in July 1997 spread rapidly to Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Taiwan, Korea and adjacent areas. In the preceding decade or so, the so-called NIEs in East and Southeast Asia had shown remarkable economic development, which attracted a worldwide attention of scholars and policy makers. The World Economy and the Developing Countries (The World Bank, 1992), even projected that the greater Chinese economic area, including the NIEs, will, by 2002, supersede the United States in scale, achieving the largest economic area in the world. It is well to remember here that the rapid economic development of Japan in the late 60s and 70s bade serious defiance to the then predominant "modernization" hypotheses. Nor could the "World Systems" hypotheses that meant to criticize the basic flaws of the modernization hypotheses attribute to Japan a proper place in these systems. Social scientists grappled with this phenomenon and proposed a number of "Japan models, " without much success though. But the rise of East and Southeast Asian economies questioned the worthiness of the search for Japan models itself. If Japan had been the only exception to the seemingly universal pattern, it should have been possible to construct an account by extracting common social, historical and other denominators. Now the task is to expand the horizon and cover a greater part of Asia. Significant efforts were, of course, made. In fact, it would not be too much to say that the major focus of developmental studies in the last two decades of the twentieth century was placed on the trajectories of Asian economies. For example, the frequently used designation, the "Asian Tigers, " testifies to the assumption that there should be at least some common denominators that explain the sudden and strong development in the entire area. If not the inhabitation of the carnivorous feline animal itself, then one or more social causes, yet unidentified, became the object of the great hunt. The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation is composed of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and Maldives, the seven countries which are inhabited by the Panthera Tigris but which in terms of economic development have not achieved anything comparable to the Asian NIEs. We noted strongly that while studies on the success stories of a portion of Asia abounded, much too few researches had been conducted on the reasons why other portions of Asia had not trod on the heels of the NIEs. As Professor Iida has rightly pointed out there is a great divide somewhere between India and Myanmar. Leaving the details of our study to the following chapters, I would dare say that it was the modernization processes themselves that devastated the SAARC tigers : not the failure of modernization, but the failure as a result of modernization. I do not mean by this that they should have been happier if they had not joined the great current of worldwide modernization, however one defines this extremely volatile term. There could have been no part of the world that could even hope to stay away from this historical trend. It is, however, equally obvious that the piteous filthiness and indigence had been caused by partially successful modernization. We admit that our three-year study has not reached definite answers to the "failures by modernization" in the SAARC countries, but at the very least we have been able to identify some of the central factors which, together, constitute the basic axes for further discussions. We would like earnestly to invite the readers' comments and criticisms, which should certainly contribute to our future researches., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 1998 -2000, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A)., Kyoto Women's University
  • 農工業部門間(農村・都市間)の公的資源配分と選挙制度
    川浦 昭彦
    1. 公共事業等の日本における公的資源配分と、国政選挙での選挙区割りと人口比の乖離との間に一定の関係が観察されるとの成果が、1980年代がら1990年代初頭にかけてのデータに基づいて行った平成9年度の研究により得られた。今年度の研究では、考察の時期を沖縄復帰により現行の47都道府県体制が整った1972年まで遡り、前回と同様の関係がデータ間に観察された。その過程で『純国庫支出バランス(expenditure-tax balance)』と『相対代表指数(relative representation index)』という分析手法の発案にも至った。 2. 上記の関係き更に検証するために、1976年・1987年に行われた衆議院選挙の区割り変更について、各都道府県の『相対代表指数』と『純国庫支出バランス』の変化の相関関係の分析を行った。その結果1987年のケースについては、統計的に有意な正の相関が観察された。 3. 「研究実施計画」で予定していた米国のデータを用いての研究は、米国連邦政府の州別財政支出データの利用に問題があり実行困難となった。しかし、米国連邦議会制度と連邦政府財政支出に関する、1980年代以降の文献調査により過去の研究成果の蓄積について情報を収集することができた。 4. 選挙制度の経済学的分析は従来は先進工業国について行われて来たが、今後の研究の展開方向として分析対象を発展途上国に拡げるために、タイ王国の選挙制度についての資料収集も行った。, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 1997 -1998, 奨励研究(A), 小樽商科大学
  • 知的所有権保護に関する国家関(先進工業国・発展途上国間)交渉の経済学的分析
    川浦 昭彦
    本研究課題の目的は、知的所有権保護に関して発展段階の異なる二国間で行なわれる交渉の理論的枠組みを確立し、その枠組みを用いて米国とタイ王国との間で最近行なわれた交渉の展開を実証的に評価することであった。 理論面では、二国間交渉の枠組みをゲームの理論を用いてモデル化するという成果が得られた。そこでの主な結論は2点にまとめられる。第一に、知的所有権の保護強化に同意いない途上国に対して先進国により発動される『制裁』に対し、途上国が『報復』を行なう場合を考えると、交渉の結果として知的所有権保護強化が実現されるのは保護強化が経済的厚生の悪化に繋がる可能性が高い途上国においてのみである。第二に、先進国が複数の途上国と交渉を行なう場合には、経済規模の小さな途上国が先ず交渉の標的にされる可能性が高く、それは先進国・途上国双方での研究開発活動への誘因という観点からは望ましくない。 実証研究として、米国が通商法301条に定められた一方的報復措置を用いてタイ王国に知的所有権の強化、特に医薬品特許の範囲拡大を求めた事例を取り上げた。この交渉の結果としてタイの特許法は改訂されたのであるが、それにより長期的にはタイ経済の社会的厚生は改善される可能性が高いという知見を得ることができた。 今後の研究課題としては、タイ王国だけで無く、米国が過去に様々な途上国と行なってきた交渉事例を整理することにより、ゲーム理論から導かれた交渉順序に関する結論が、現実を説明するのに適当であるか否か検証することが挙げられる。, 日本学術振興会, 科学研究費助成事業, 1996 -1996, 奨励研究(A), 小樽商科大学