KAWAGUCHI Akira
Faculty of Policy Studies Department of Policy Studies
Professor
Last Updated :2024/04/23

Researcher Profile and Settings

    Profile

    1958年香川県生まれ。1982年京都大学経済学部卒業。1984年京都大学大学院経済学研究科修士課程修了。1991年オーストラリア国立大学Ph.D.(経済学)。メルボルン大学経済商学部講師、追手門学院大学経済学部教授などを経て、2004年より同志社大学政策学部教授。ジェンダー経済格差を生み出す社会構造の分析について研究している。主な著書に『ジェンダー経済格差』勁草書房、『日本のジェンダーを考える』有斐閣。

    Research Interests

    • gender
    • gender roles
    • Japanese employment system

    Research Areas

    • Humanities & social sciences / Economic policy / econometric analysis in gender gaps
    • Humanities & social sciences / Gender studies / gender gap in economic status

    Research Experience

    • Doshisha University, Faculty of Policy Studies, Professor, 2004/04 - Today
    • Otemon Gakuin University, Faculty of Economics, Professor, 2000/04 - 2004/03
    • Otemon Gakuin University, Faculty of Economics, Professor, 1995/04 - 2000/03
    • Otemon Gakuin University, Faculty of Economics, Lecturer, 1993/07 - 1995/03
    • Melbourne University, Faculty of Economics and Commerce, Lecturer, 1990/01 - 1993/06

    Education

    • Australian National University, Research School of Pacific Studies, 1986/03 - 1990/01
    • The Australian National University, Graduate School, Division of Economics, - 1990
    • University of Kyoto, Research School of Economic Studies, Master Course, 1984/04 - 1986/03
    • Kyoto University, Graduate School, Division of Economics, - 1986
    • University of Kyoto, Research School of Economic Studies, Master Course, 1982/04 - 1984/03
    • Kyoto University, Graduate School, Division of Economics, - 1984
    • University of Kyoto, Faculty of Economics, 1976/04 - 1982/03
    • Kyoto University, Faculty of Economics, - 1982

    Degree

    • Ph.D., The Australian National University
    • Master of Economics, Kyoto University

    Association Memberships

    • AUSTRALIAN STUDIES ASSOCIATION OF JAPAN
    • THE JAPAN SOCIOLOGICAL SOCIETY
    • 日本フェミニスト経済学会
    • JAPANESE ECONOMIC ASSOCIATION

    Committee Memberships

    • 労働関係図書優秀賞審査委員, 2012/04 - Today, 労働政策研究・研修機構, Society
    • 学会賞選考委員, 2018/09 - 2020/08, 社会政策学会, Society
    • 代表理事, 2014/07 - 2016/07, フェミニスト経済学会, Society
    • 副代表理事, 2013/06 - 2016/06, オーストラリア学会, Society
    • 幹事, 2010/07 - 2014/07, フェミニスト経済学会, Society
    • 理事, 2011/06 - 2013/06, オーストラリア学会, Society

    Awards

    • Nikkei Economic Book Award
      Nov. 2008, Nikkei, Gender Gap in Economic Status

    Published Papers

    • Does diversification of working style of regular workers cause gender segregation of occupation and wage gap?
      Akira Kawaguchi
      The Japanese Journal of Labour Studies, (653) 28 - 42, Dec. 2023, Scientific journal
    • What institutional characteristics determine and mitigate gender inequality in the workplace? An empirical analysis of Japanese firms
      Kimitaka Nishitani; Akira Kawaguchi
      Women's Studies International Forum, 97(March-April) 1 - 14, Mar. 2023, Scientific journal
    • Effects of COVID-19 on employment of working parents: How has the gender gap increased?
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Doshisha Policy and Management Review, 23(2) 17 - 33, 01 Mar. 2022, Scientific journal
    • "Maternity harassment in Japan: Why do regular employees have higher risk than non-regular employees do?"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Japan and the World Economy, 49 84 - 94, 2019, Scientific journal
    • Internal labor markets and gender inequality: Evidence from Japanese micro data, 1990-2009
      Akira Kawaguchi
      JOURNAL OF THE JAPANESE AND INTERNATIONAL ECONOMIES, ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 38 193 - 213, Dec. 2015, Scientific journal
    • Older sisters and younger brothers: The impact of siblings on preference for competition
      Hiroko Okudaira; Yusuke Kinari; Noriko Mizutani; Fumio Ohtake; Akira Kawaguchi
      PERSONALITY AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES, PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 82 81 - 89, Aug. 2015, Scientific journal
    • Measures to promote the use of female workers' abilities and corporate performance : analysis of small and medium-sized firms in Osaka Prefecture
      Kawaguchi Akira; Kasai Takato
      Doshisha University policy & management, Doshisha University, 15(1) 85 - 98, 2013
    • Gender Difference in Ambition for Promotion
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 労働政策研究・研修機構, 620(2) 42 - 57, 2012
    • Gender Differences in Preferences : Economics Encounters Psychology
      川口 章
      『日本ジェンダー研究』, 日本ジェンダー学会, (15) 43 - 64, 2012
    • Material on "Women's Association of Temporary Work Services"
      Kawaguchi Akira; Daikoku Shunsuke
      Doshisha University policy & management, Doshisha University, 14(1) 71 - 78, 2012
    • Deregulation and labour earnings: Three motor carrier industries in Japan
      Akira Kawaguchi; Keizo Mizuno
      LABOUR ECONOMICS, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 18(4) 441 - 452, Aug. 2011, Scientific journal
    • 「コーポレート・ガバナンスと女性の活躍」
      川口 章; 西谷 公孝
      『日本経済研究』, 65 65 - 93, 2011
    • 「『賃金構造基本統計調査』1989-2009年の概観」
      川口 章
      『同志社政策研究』, 5 107 - 122, 2011
    • 「育児休業が出生率に与える効果」
      坂爪 聡子; 川口 章
      『人口学研究』, (40) 1 - 15, 2007
    • The gender wage gap in four countries
      A Daly; A Kawaguchi; Meng, X; K Mumford
      ECONOMIC RECORD, BLACKWELL PUBLISHING, 82(257) 165 - 176, Jun. 2006, Scientific journal
    • 「企業表彰が株価・人気ランキングに与える影響―均等推進とファミリー・フレンドリーの市場評価」
      川口 章; 長江 亮
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 労働政策研究・研修機構, 47(5) 43 - 58, May 2005
    • 「結婚と出産は男女の賃金にどのような影響を及ぼしているのか」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 労働政策研究・研修機構, 47(1) 42 - 55, 2005
    • 「1990年代における男女間賃金格差縮小の要因」
      川口 章
      『経済分析』, (175) 52 - 82, 2005
    • 「ファミリー・フレンドリー施策と男女均等施策」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 44(6) 15 - 28, 2003
    • 「女性のマリッジ・プレミアム:結婚・出産が就業・賃金に与える影響」
      川口 章
      『季刊家計経済研究』, 家計経済研究所, (51) 63 - 71, 2001
    • 「コース選択と賃金選択:統計的差別は克服できるか」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 日本労働研究機構, 41(11) 59 - 68, 1999
    • "Why Is Japanese Working Time so Long?: Wage-Working Time Contract Models"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Japanese Economic Review, 学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来, 47(3) 251 - 270, 1996
    • INFLATION OR MONETARY OVERHANG - PLANNERS PREFERENCES IN CHINA
      LH LIEW; A KAWAGUCHI
      APPLIED ECONOMICS, CHAPMAN HALL LTD, 27(6) 469 - 475, Jun. 1995, Scientific journal
    • TESTING NEOCLASSICAL AND NONNEOCLASSICAL MODELS OF HOUSEHOLD LABOR SUPPLY
      A KAWAGUCHI
      APPLIED ECONOMICS, ROUTLEDGE, 26(1) 9 - 19, Jan. 1994, Scientific journal

    MISC

    • 女性管理職が増える企業と増えない企業─どこが違うのか─
      川口章
      生活協同組合研究, (565) 15 - 23, Feb. 2023, Introduction commerce magazine
    • Japanese Graduates’ Transition from University to Work and Their Income: A Comparison with Australia, Indonesia, and Vietnam
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Doshisha Policy and Management Review, 21(2) 31 - 38, Mar. 2020
    • Thirty Years after the Enactment of the Act on Securing, Etc. of Equal Opportunity and Treatment between Men and Women in Employment
      笠井 高人; 川口 章
      運輸と経済, 運輸調査局, 77(5) 56 - 63, 2017
    • 「日本経済における女性活躍の課題-日本的雇用制度に着目して-」
      川口 章
      『日本労務学会誌』, 16(1) 125 - 137, 2015
    • 「失われた20年に女性労働者は何を得たか:ジェンダー賃金格差の変動要因と政策課題」
      川口 章
      『季刊 個人金融』, 郵便貯金振興会, 8(4) 2 - 12, 2014
    • "Equal Employment Opportunity Act and Work-Life Balance: Do Work-Family Balance Policies Contribute to Achieving Gender Equality?"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Japan Labor Review, 10(2) 35 - 56, 2013
    • "Corporate Governance and the Role of Women"
      Akira Kawaguchi; Kimitaka Nishitani
      Japanese Economy, 39(2) 43 - 64, 2012
    • Equal Employment Opportunity Law and work-life balance: do work-family balance policies contribute to the gender equalization?
      川口 章
      The Japanese journal of labour studies, 労働政策研究・研修機構, 615(10) 25 - 37, 2011
    • 「ワーク・ライフ・バランスと男女均等化は企業業績を高めるか:大阪府における中小企業の分析」
      川口 章; 西谷 公孝
      『同志社政策研究』, 同志社大学, 3(3) 31 - 47, 2009
    • Corporate Governance by Investors and the Role of Women
      川口 章
      Japan Labor Review, 6(1) 72 - 90, 2009
    • An analysis of job search behaviour of inactive nurses in Japan
      Akira Kawaguchi; Fumiaki Yasukawa; Yoichiro Matsuda
      JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, WILEY-BLACKWELL, 17(24) 3275 - 3285, Dec. 2008
    • 「企業による仕事と家庭の両立支援の推進を」
      川口 章
      『NIRA政策レビュー』, (25) 2 - 3, 2008
    • 「日本の看護需要と働き甲斐:現状と課題の社会経済分析」
      川口 章; 安川 文朗; 松田 洋一郎
      『社会保険旬報』, 社会保険研究所, (2344) 38 - 47, 2008
    • Effectiveness of positive action measures
      川口 章
      The Japanese journal of labour studies, 労働政策研究・研修機構, 50(4) 24 - 27, 2008
    • 「統計的女性差別を解消するための政策についての理論的考察」
      川口 章
      『同志社政策研究』, 同志社大学, 1 2 - 25, 2007
    • 「日本的雇用制度・経営改革・女性の活躍」
      川口 章
      労働政策研究・研修機構『企業のコーポレートガバナンス・CSRと人事戦略に関する調査研究報告書』労働政策研究報告書, (74) 122 - 140, 2007
    • 「ワーク・ライフ・バランス施策は企業業績を上げるか」
      川口 章
      『Int’lecowk』, 国際経済労働研究所, 62(3) 14 - 19, 2007
    • 「働き方の格差と処遇の格差」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 49(5) 64 - 66, 2007
    • 「均等化施策とワーク・ライフ・バランス施策が賃金と離職行動に及ぼす影響」
      川口 章
      労働政策研究・研修機構『仕事と家庭の両立支援にかかわる調査』JILPT調査シリーズ, (37) 60 - 78, 2007
    • 「女性の離職率・均等度・企業業績」
      川口 章
      労働政策研究・研修機構『仕事と家庭の両立支援にかかわる調査』JILPT調査シリーズ, (37) 79 - 89, 2007
    • 「女性の就業と出生率の動向」
      川口 章
      『社会政策学会誌』, (14) 18 - 37, 2005
    • Not entered
      The Japanese Journal of Labour Economics, 47(1) 42 - 55, 2005
    • Not entered
      The Japanese Journal of Labour Studies, 47(5) 43 - 58, 2005
    • Competitive Balance in Australian and Japanese Sport
      Anne Daly; Akira Kawaguchi
      Otemon Journal of Australian Studies, 30 23 - 36, 2004
    • Resignation, Childcare Leave or Work without Leave: Choice of Working Women Who Give Birth
      Kawaguchi Akira
      Otemon Journal of Economics and Business Administration, Otemon Gakuin University, 10(10) 125 - 137, 2003
    • Professional Sport in Australia and Japan: League Rules and Competitive Balance
      Daly Anne; Kawaguchi Akira
      Otemon Journal of Australian Studies, Otemon Gakuin University, 29 21 - 32, 2003
    • Not entered
      The Japanese Journal of Labour Studies, 44(6) 15 - 28, 2003
    • 「ダグラス=有沢法則は有効なのか」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, 44(4) 18 - 21, 2002
    • Not entered
      The Japanese Journal of Labour Studies, 44(4) 18 - 21, 2002
    • Division of Labor in Households : Economic Explanation and Its Limitations
      Kawaguchi Akira
      『追手門経済論集』, Otemon Gakuin University, 36(1・2) 1 - 30, 2001
    • Game of Men and Women--Wage Gap and Gender Division of Labor
      KAWAGUCHI Akira
      Keizai-ronso : The economic review, 学術雑誌目次速報データベース由来, 164(5) 34 - 56, 1999
    • 「戦後日本の社会政策―女性労働政策を考える―」
      川口 章
      『私学研修』, (150) 5 - 12, 1998
    • "Premarrige Human Capital Investment and Household Division of Lavor: Theory and Policy Implications"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Otemon Economic Studies, Otemon Gakuin University, 31 49 - 78, 1998
    • 「女子に対する就職差別のモデル」
      川口 章
      『追手門経済論集』, 30(2) 66 - 83, 1995
    • 「オーストラリアの家庭における男女の役割分担」
      川口 章
      『オーストラリア研究紀要』, (21) 21 - 40, 1995
    • "Conventional Discrimination against Women in Employment"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Otemon Economic Studies, Otemon Gakuin University, 28 9 - 21, 1995
    • 「オーストラリアにおける賃金決定制度の改革」
      川口 章
      『日本労働研究雑誌』, (413) 33 - 40, 1994
    • "A Microeconomic Model of Japanese Enterprise Bargaining"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Pacific Economic Paper, (236) 30 , 1994
    • 「オーストラリアにおける既婚女子の労働供給」
      川口 章
      『オーストラリア研究紀要』, (16) 47 - 60, 1993
    • "Working Time Policies in Japan"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Current Politics and Economics of Japan, 2(1) 23 - 40, 1992
    • "Optimal Information Offer Scheme in Wage Bargaining with Asymmetric Information"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Research Paper, Department of Economics, Melbourne University, (317), 1991
    • 「技術革新と制限的慣行―1960年代のイギリスを中心に―」
      川口 章
      『経済論叢』, 京都大學經濟學會, 136(1) 80 - 98, 1985

    Books etc

    • "Effects of Paid and Unpaid Overtime Work on Stress, Earnings, and Happiness," Toshiaki Tachibanaki (ed.) Advances in Happiness Research: A Comparative Perspective
      Akira Kawaguchi; Takato Kasai
      Springer, 2016, Joint work
    • 「働き方の男女格差と少子化」冨士谷あつ子・伊藤公雄編『フランスに学ぶ男女共同の子育てと少子化抑止策』
      川口 章
      明石書店, 2014, Single work
    • 「女性活用 (下) 日本的雇用慣行に修正を」日本経済新聞社編『日本再生改革の論点』
      川口 章
      日本経済新聞社, 2014, Single work
    • 『日本のジェンダーを考える』
      川口 章
      有斐閣, 2013, Single work
    • 「バブル景気以降における男女間賃金格差の実態とその研究動向」樋口美雄編『労働市場と所得分配』
      川口 章
      慶応義塾大学出版会, 2010, Single work
    • Equal Employment Opportunity, Work-Life Balance and Corporate Performance in Japan: An Analysis based on Matched Employer- Manager- Employee Data, Corbett, J. Daly, A., Matsushige, H. and Tayloer D. (eds.) Laggards and Leaders in Labour Market Reform
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Routledge, 2009, Single work
    • 「女性のライフサイクルからみた労働と社会保障のあり方」宮島洋・西村周三・京極髙宣編『社会保障と経済 1 企業と労働』
      川口 章
      東京大学出版会, 2009, Single work
    • 『ジェンダー経済格差』
      川口 章
      勁草書房, 2008, Single work
    • 「雇用平等」荒木尚志他編『雇用社会の法と経済』
      山川 隆一; 川口 章
      有斐閣, 2008, Joint work
    • "Work-Life Balance Measures and Gender Division of Labor" Mason, A. and Yamaguchi, M. (eds.) Popolation Change, Labor Markets and Sustainabile Growth
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Elsevier, 2007, Single work
    • "The Child-care Leave System in Japan: Development, Problems and Further Reform" Toshiaki Tachibanaki (ed.) The Economics of Social Security in Japan
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Edward Elgar, 2004, Single work
    • 「日本的雇用制度におけるジェンダー・バイアス:ゲーム論的アプローチ」玉井金五・久本憲夫編『高度成長のなかの社会政策』
      川口 章
      ミネルバ書房, 2004, Single work
    • 「賃金プロファイル,勤続期間,および昇進制度の日豪比較」山中雅夫・川口章編『オーストラリアの産業政策と日本の多国籍企業』
      川口 章
      八千代出版, 1998, Single work
    • 「男女間賃金格差の経済理論」中馬宏之・駿河輝和編『雇用慣行の変化と女性労働』
      川口 章
      東京大学出版会, 1997, Single work

    Presentations

    • 「くるみん」マークはどのように機能しているのか:パネルデータによる認定企業のワークライフバランスと女性活躍の分析
      川口章
      同志社大学政策学会第1回セミナー, 08 Jun. 2022
    • 「働き方改革でワークライフバランスは改善するか」
      川口 章
      日本経済政策学会, 26 May 2018
    • "Prevalence and couse of maternity harassment: Focusing on gender stereotypes and contributions to organizations"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      The 21st Asian Studies Conference Japan, 09 Jul. 2017
    • 「マタニティー・ハラスメント」
      川口 章
      第5回赤ちゃん学研究拠点セミナー, 28 Nov. 2016
    • "Maternity Harassment: Who Are Victimized and How Can It Be Solved?"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Japan-Taiwan Joint Workshop on Work-Life Balance and Family Well-being, 17 Oct. 2016
    • 「経済学からみたマタニティ・ハラスメント」
      川口 章
      シンポジウム『妊娠差別を考える―平成24年10月23日最高裁判判決を素材として』, 29 Nov. 2014
    • 「労働市場における男女格差の現状と課題」
      川口 章
      第19回厚生政策セミナー『多様化する女性のライフコースと社会保障』, 31 Oct. 2014
    • "Effect of Paid and Unpaid Overtime Work on Stress and Happiness"
      Akira Kawaguchi; Takato Kasai
      International Workshop Comparative Study on Happiness, 16 Oct. 2014
    • 「Web調査で見る『マタニティー・ハラスメント』の実態」
      川口 章
      ジェンダー研究会, 27 Sep. 2014
    • 「日本経済における女性活躍推進の課題ー日本的雇用制度に着目してー」
      川口 章
      日本労務学会, 20 Jul. 2014, Invited oral presentation
    • 「労働市場における男女格差の現状と政策課題」
      川口 章
      日本労務学会シンポジウム『女性の活躍の場の拡大』, 20 Jul. 2014
    • "Do Workaholics Live a Happy Life?: Comparison of Japan, U.S. and France"
      KAWAGUCHI Akira
      International Conference: Comparative Study on Happiness, 24 Feb. 2014
    • 「失われた20年:女性労働者は何を獲得したか?」
      川口 章
      財務省財務総合研究所セミナー, 30 May 2013, Public discourse
    • "Equal Employment Opportunity Act and Work-Life Balance: Do Work-Family Balance Policies Contribute to Achieving Gender Equality?"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Seminer at National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling, University of Canberra, 05 Mar. 2013
    • "Role of Trade Unions in Balancing Work and Family"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      日本経済学会秋季大会, 08 Oct. 2012
    • "Friends or Foe? Role of Trade Union for Gender Equal Workplace"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      International Conference Organized by the Korean Women Economists Association, 25 May 2012
    • 「ジェンダー研究の現在」
      川口 章
      第14回労働経済学コンファレンス, 05 Sep. 2011
    • 「日本的雇用制度と男女格差」
      川口 章
      日本経済学会春季大会, 22 May 2011
    • "Labour Market Institutions and Gender Inequalities: Evidence from the Wage Census, 1989-2009"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Conference at Australian National University, 29 Mar. 2011
    • "Is the Japanese Employment System Discriminatory against Women? Evidence from the Wage Census, 1989-2009"
      Akira Kawaguchi
      Seminer at Kyoto University, 20 Mar. 2011

    Research Projects

    • Causes of maternity harassment and its effect on victims' career
      Kawaguchi Akira
      This is the first study that uses microdata to analyze the characteristics of women and workplaces that are associated with the risk of maternity harassment (MH). Existing surveys find that regular employees are more likely to be victimized by MH than are non-regular employees. This study decomposes the regular/non-regular gap in the rate of victimization into such factors as education, tenure, voluntary resignation, pressure to work overtime, clear job description, and male-dominated workplace. I find that voluntary resignation and pressure to work overtime are the two largest factors that explain the regular/non-regular gap in the risk of MH. I also find that organizations that provide clear job descriptions have low risk of MH. The results suggest that organizations could reduce the risk of MH by clarifying individual employees’ roles and by highly evaluating employees who execute their duties without overtime., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2015/04 -2019/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Doshisha University
    • Professional Confidence and Career Development for Women in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics
      Fujimoto Tetsushi
      Professional confidence for women in academic and corporate science increases their motivation to persist in professional careers. Women’s perceived balance between work and personal life promotes their confidence as a professional, but perceived imbalance undermines the likelihood of their persisting in science careers. Confidence as a professional scientist/engineer is likely to affect women’s various decision-making in work and life, it is important to provide support for women in forming confidence in their early career stages, so that they are more likely to remain in their professional occupations., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2013/04 -2018/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • Theoretical and empirical research on the effect of changes in risk structure on the economic growth.
      Yagi Tadashi; TACHIBANAKI Toshiaki; ITABA Yoshio; MIYAZAWA Kazutoshi; KAWAGUCHI Akira; SASAKI Masayuki
      In this resaerch project, we investigated the essences of the risk. We mainly focus on the issues of risks generated from the failure of human capital accumulation. It is shown that the failure in educational career but also the failure of moral formation brings about the serious devaluation as a human capital in the market, and decline of happiness. As a result, we showed that the costs of risks generated from the non-optimal decision making is quite serious, and we discussed the policies for remedying the mis-choice of individuals., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2012/04 -2016/03, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • Gender Gap in the Labor Markets : Its Sources and Countermeasures
      KAWAGUCHI Akira; WAKISAKA Akira; KISHI Tomoko; OHTAKE Fumio; KIMURA Hiroko; MIZUTANI Noriko; KINARI Yusuke
      The aim of this research is to measure gender gap in the labor markets and discuss countermeasure against the gender gap. We conducted an experiment with the gender difference in preference for competition, a questionnaire about gender equality in the workplaces, and a questionnaire about work-family balance of workers. We found that firms that implement work-family balance measures have lower rate of female turnover, firms that implement affirmative action have more female managers, and men prefer competition compared with women., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2011 -2013, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • The Analysis on the Essential Structure of Risk Society and the Optimal Policy
      YAGI Tadashi; TACHIBANAKI Toshiaki; UZUHASHI Takafumi; TABA Yoshio; KAWAGUCHI Akira; MIYAZAWA Kazutoshi; YAMAGUCHI Eiichi
      This study examined the systematic relation among risk averse behavior, saving be-havior, and personalities. As a result of the analysis, we found the strong systematic relation between personalities and risk averse behavior. In addition, we revealed that the difference in the pattern of education affects the earnings ability and the diversion of income, and we get various insight on the education policy., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2009 -2011, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • Research of the causes, impacts and policies on the geographical and specialty area imbalance of medical professionals
      NAKATA Yoshifumi; FUJIMOTO Tetsushi; MIYOSHI Hiroaki; KAWAGUCHI Akira; YASUKAWA Fumiaki; TANAKA Sachiko; MIYAZAKI Satoru
      We analyzed the internal and external labor market of Japanese medical professionals. Our findings are summarized as follows. First, the Japanese labor market for those professionals is functioning to match the demand and supply. But the their salary and other working conditions are equally influenced by various national policies., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2007 -2009, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • Research on the Effects of Child Support Measures on Corporate Performance
      KAWAGUCHI Akira; TOMITA Yasunobu; WAKISAKA Akira; OHTAKE Fumio; FUJIMOTO Tetsushi; YAMAMOTO Yoko
      This research analyzed the effect of child support measures on workers' work motivation and corporate performance. We implemented two questionnaire surveys for firms, two questionnaire surveys for workers and many interviews for managers. We found that the work motivation increases when workers use child support measures, and there is a positive correlation between child support measures and corporate profit., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2007 -2009, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Doshisha University
    • The Reasons for Regional Indifferentials and the policies for reducing them
      TACHIBANAKI Toshiaki; FUJITA Masahisa; IHORI Toshihiro; ITABA Yoshio; KAWAGUCHI Akira; MUN Se-il; YAGI Tadashi; OHTA Soichi; MIYAZAWA Kazutoshi
      The research outputs of the projects are huge as is shown in the lists of publications and conference presentations. The main issues are as follows : 1) the issues on the relation between the local finance and the interregional inequality, 2) the issues on the education policy and the interregional inequality, 3) the issues on the urban policy and interregional inequality, 4) the issues on labor policy and the interregional inequality, 5) the issues on social capital and the interregional inequality. Especially, we concluded that the effective utilization of the social functions given to community would be important policy for solving the problems of interregional inequalities., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2007 -2009, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Doshisha University
    • Research on differentials over generations and social system for incentive promotion
      TACHIBANAKI Toshiaki; OHTAKE Fumio; INAGAKI Kyoko; OHTA Souichi; KAWAGUCHI Akira; YAGI Tadashi
      In 2004 year, we advanced around the investigation of hierarchizing and wealth formation. We did one questionnaire survey by using the Internet as an examination method. Moreover, the questionnaire survey intended for the high income taxpayers was performed. These questions were empirically analyzed, and we attempted to find various routes, for example backgrounds, which affect the asset accumulation process. In 2005 year, the analysis was advanced about the relationship between the accumulation of human capital and the heritage of property over several generations, especially paying attention to the effect of the cost for the compensatory education. The questionnaire survey asked the situation to the compensatory education to the children, educational environment and family economics condition in order to clarify the relationship between these conditions and their income and occupations. The research subjects by the Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research are as fellows ; the relationships among the state of income distribution, the attitude about fairness, tax systems, the willing to work, educational investment incentive, etc in Japan. In 2006 year, we analyzed what is desirable to improve the formation of the educational system, the structure of employment, and the formation of community aiming at obtaining a preferable society. We found the following results. It is important to provide people with the identity as a worker, to improve the educational system and to achieve the condition such that the community functions well. Also, we suggested several policy tools to attain such goals. Empirical studies were attempted to consolidate that such tools are useful in the real world., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 2004 -2006, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Kyoto University
    • "On The Relationship between Incentive Regulation for Public Utilities and their Firm Structures"
      MIZUNO Keizo; KAWAGUCHI Akira
      The contributions made by the research project for two years, i.e., 1997 and 1998, are presented in the following two papers. 1. "Strategic Labor Bargaining of Regulated Firms" This paper examines the characteristics of labor bargaining of firms under regulation, like public utilities. One usually explains the income distribution between managers and workers (or a labor union) within a firm in general, i.e., including regulated firms, in terms of the bargaining power they own in a labor bargaining. The analysis in this paper shows that the existence of a regulation can have an effect on the income distribution within a firm under the regulation. In particular, it is shown that the manager of a regulated firm can increase her gain at the cost of the gain the workers of the firm obtain, especially when a regulator take an opportunistic behavior to determine the level of regulated price without the complete information on the firm's cost (i.e., under an asymmetric information). 2. "Monopoly Regulation with an Outside Subcontractor"(This paper stems from the two earlier drafts entitled "Efficient Bargaining in Vertical Trade under Monopoly Regulation" and "Efficient Bargaining in Subcontracts under Monopoly Regulation".) This paper examines the relationship between public utility regulation and subcontracts for facility plants or the purchase of intermediate goods in public utility industries. It discusses two problems ; desirable bargaining forms of a subcontract under the regulation and a possibility of delegation of a subcontract to a regulated firm. In the analysis of the first problem, two particular bargaining forms are compared : One is called an "efficient bargaining", while the other is called an "exclusive price-setting". It is shown that under an asymmetric information, an efficient bargaining of the subcontract can be better than the exclusive price-setting from the social-welfare point of view, even if the bargaining power of a regulator (or a regulated firm) is quite weak in an efficient bargaining. The reason comes from the fact that the efficient bargaining can reduce more informational rent that the regulated firm obtains through the public utility regulation. For the second problem, i.e., on the possibility of delegation of a subcontract, the analysis shows that a regulator prefers the delegation to a regulated firm, when (1)the public-utility project is large, or (2) the technology that a subcontractor uses for a production of intermediate goods is good., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 1997 -1998, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Kwansei Gakuin University
    • Australian Industry Policy and Japanese MNEs
      YAMANAKA Masao; PURCELL William; WHITWELL Greg; MERRETT David; NICHOLAS Stephen; MORISHIMA Akira; KAWAGUCHI Akira; YONEHARA Junshitiro; TOYAMA Yoshihiro
      Now in Australia, a big change of industry policy is under way, introducing diverse measures, one of which is the gradual cut of tariff rates. The aim of this policy change is economic reconstruction by improving international competitiveness of manufacturing industries and by facilitating exports of manafactured goods. This change seems to imply decrease of merits of foreign direct investment to Australian manufacturing industries, and some Japanese MNEs actually withdrew their production activities from Australia. Other companies, however, added large investment to increase export-oriented production. The analysis of business strategies of some of Japanese MNEs in Australia shows enough competence of those enterprises to adjust the new business environment. This survey emphasizes the importance of trans-national solution for the new world economy. International in-house specialization of products and international procurement operation are now basic strategies of multi-national enterprises. Facilitating of micro economic reform is essential for Australian enterprises to compete in the world market. Inefficient public services of maritime and air port, transportation, electric power and so on are heavy burdens for private sectors, especially for manufacturing industries. Further lightening or removal of government regulations will activate business entrepreneurship. Acceleration of industrialization, informationalizing and internationalization is rapidly decreasing income and technology difference between countries, and hence management competence would become the key factor of international competition., Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research, 1996 -1996, Grant-in-Aid for international Scientific Research, Otemon Gakuin University